Indians that traded with other Indians would not only gain a specific product, but would share ideas and customs. Others started to make things from copper. Sometimes shellfish and mussels were eaten and the Indians threw away the shells. A majority of Indians living in Indiana belonged to the Miami tribe.
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Within each clan there was an elected chief. Usually, each chief had a group of advisors which made up his council.
These people were the ancestors of the Indians. The Europeans traded these iron tools for skins of beaver, bear and deer. When an Indian or whole village became skilled at one craft they sometimes exchanged their craft with products from other villages. A tribe shared the same language, tradition, history and customs.
The Miami women were then responsible for planting and harvesting the crop. In the s there were two major groups of Indians living in the Eastern Woodlands the land east of the Mississippi Riverthe Iroquois and the Algonquian groups. The French government named this new land New France.
The tribes began to trade for iron pots, knives and guns. The Indians, who had no natural immunity to these new diseases, died by the thousands. Because he was the first to discover the area around the St. Lawrence River, Cartier claimed all of the land for France.
Small spearhe were used in place of large spearhe. When these men returned to the village after a successful hunting trip there would be another large party. The Indians that learned this custom are referred to as Mound Builders. The Miami Indians, along with most Indians in North America, embraced the tools first brought by the Europeans in the early s.
The people who belonged to a clan were usually blood related. Beside the male chief there was a female chief. The first people who lived in what would later become Indiana were hunters of these and other animals. Eventually the bow and arrow was invented because it was easier to hunt small, quick animals. These shells are found by archaeologists even today and provide a glimpse into the everyday life of early Indiana residents. A mound was a hill that consisted of built up earth and stone.
Once you have a stable food supply you do not have to travel around every season. The Arrival of the Europeans. In the latter part of winter and early spring, Miami women and children went out into the woods to tap the maple trees for their sap.
A mound was built to house the body or bodies of the mound building Indians. The Miami Tribe. They also collected berries, apples and nuts from the forest in which they lived.
Around this time in Indiana history the Indians learned to create pottery and baskets. If the sap was boiled a long time it eventually turned into maple syrup. They also had a very important difference, they spoke two different kinds of languages. Scientists have also discovered that the Indians ate deer, bear, turtles and water fowl. These two groups of Indians had some similarities. They usually hunted deer, rabbits, bear and beaver.
When the harvest of crops was over the entire village celebrated by having a large party with singing, dancing, game-playing and, of course, eating. They paid very close attention to the seeds that they were planting which would grow to feed their tribe or group. In the fall and winter, Miami men left the villages to hunt.
Each of the clans within the Miami tribe had their ownwhich is similar to having a last name. Since the search for food was now not an all day, every day event, Indians spent more time becoming skilled at a certain craft.
Angel Mounds in Evansville, Indiana is the location of another mound building community. This became known at trading. This was possibly the home of an important Indian within his tribe.
There were chiefs ased just to oversee wars, oversee the community and a civil chief that was ased to keep peace within the clans, villages and tribe. There were also chiefs for the village and for the entire tribe. This sap was boiled and placed into birchbark containers. The mound is in the shape of a circle with a large platform in the center of the mound circle. The bodies were usually decorated with products the Indians had traded from other villages sometimes as far away as the Rocky Mountains.
And because they were able to grow their own food, they started to live together in small communities or villages.
Each spring the men of these Miami tribes would help the women clear the fields for planting. As time went on hunting and gathering among the Indians changed. Indians learned that if they placed seeds into the soil these seeds would grow into plants. In addition, there were large wolves, saber-toothed tigers, bears and beavers. In the middle of the mound, scientists have discovered human skeletons and other Indian artifacts.
With the arrival of farming settlers into once held Indian territory many Indians died by wars or were forcibly removed to places farther and farther west. The Miami tribe, just like many other tribes, was divided into clans. These animals not only provided food, they provided their skins and fur for clothing. They cooked their food over open fires and used the skins of animals for clothing and shelter.
In Samuel de Champlain arrived to govern this new territory and founded the city of Quebec. The Miamis lived in villages that were usually along waterways and trails throughout the state. The Indians used the lakes, rivers and streams of Indiana to fish for food.
They began to hunt smaller animals such as deer and rabbits.
They both farmed and hunted for food, used canoes to travel the waterways of North America and used wood and bark for building shelter. The largest mound inside the park is feet across. The female war chief was responsible for making certain that if the tribe went to war the warriors had the supplies they needed.
The hollow circle is wide enough to place an entire football in the center. They used the colored glass be and woven cloths the Europeans brought. Believe it or not, there were actually two chiefs of war and the community.
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The Mound Builders. In the early s a French explorer, Jacques Cartier, discovered the St. Lawrence River. Trading is the selling or exchange of products.
He also spent a large amount of his time exploring the land around the St. Champlain encouraged the French already in New France to learn Indian languages and to live in the forests. The Miami tribe was part of the Algonquian group of Indians. The first catastrophic change among Indian tribes was the introduction of European diseases and viruses. These Frenchman became known as Voyagers. The female community or civil chief was in charge of food preparation for the large festivals that were held at different times of the year. Within both of these groups there were several tribes.
The arrival of the Europeans caused a great change among the Indian tribes and their way of life.
One of these prehistoric animals was the mammoth sometimes referred to as the Woolly Mammoth which looked like a modern day elephant. Out of all of these tribes the Miami were the largest. Indian farmers turned wild plants into foods which we have today: corn, pumpkins, beets, squash and tomatoes. This history is not intended as a comprehensive or all-inclusive history on the state of Indiana. Thousands of years before Christopher Columbus stumbled upon the Americas which led the way to North America for the Europeans, an ancient race of people lived in North America.
The French in Indiana. Some Indians became very skilled at making better and sharper arrowhe. This is the beginning of farming. To do so they had to change their weapons. The two groups also had different customs and traditions.
One idea that was popular among Indians in Indiana was mound building. The first mounds that Indians constructed within Indiana were burial mounds. Along with the native peoples that lived around the Great Lakes area large animals roamed.