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Log in through your institution. This article explores the relationship between language and cultural identity as manifested in the language socialization practices of four Mexican-descent families: two in northern California and two in south Texas.

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Background: Familismo or familism is a cultural value frequently seen in Hispanic cultures, in which a higher emphasis is placed on the family unit in terms of respect, support, obligation, and reference. Familism has been implicated as a protective factor against mental health problems and may foster the growth and development of children. This study aims at measuring the size of the relationship between familism and mental health outcomes of depression, suicide, substance abuse, internalizing, and externalizing behaviors.

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The mean age was 46 years old range of 21—87 years. An important methodological issue in the empirical study of spirituality is clarity in the operationalization of religiosity versus spirituality. Items for the LSPS were developed from Latino theological perspectives and cultural values as described above.

An important point to consider is that because Latinos are not a monolithic group, there are some for whom this questionnaire may not be relevant, particularly those Latinos who identify as non-Christian or atheist. In this article, the term spirituality among Latinosrather than Latino spiritualityis used to denote the multiplicity of perspectives that may exist across various Latino populations.

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While both constructs may be salient in people's practice of their faith, it is important for researchers to be clear about which construct is being measured. The historical events of colonization have continuing effects on Latino people today.

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The Latino value of personalismo was represented by items about one's everyday relationship with God and with cultural and religious symbols, such as Jesus, Our Lady of Guadalupe, or personal saints see Table 1 for list of items. Oppression based on racial category, ethnicity, class, language, and immigration status is a lived reality for many Latinos and is linked to ongoing socioeconomic, educational, and health disparities for Latino groups.

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Each of these items hypothetically represents varying aspects of people's connection with transcendent or religiously symbolic beings, and all were hypothesized to belong to a single subscale. Theoretically interesting patterns, however, emerged from item loadings in the first 2 factors.

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For many Latinos, the women in the family are the ones who inculcate values and keep religious rituals alive. These investigations indicate that spirituality and religiosity are interwoven with their daily lives and serve as foundations of strength in coping with life's struggles. Personalismo is an important Latino cultural value that is characterized by warmth, closeness, and empathy in one's relationship with others.

Each of the items pertaining to women's relationship with God predicted the dependent variable, while none of the items about relationship with other divine beings were ificant Table 3. Simply translating instruments into another language may not be appropriate if this step has been omitted.

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A 6-factor solution indicates the possibility that more than one construct is being measured, which will require further validation testing. Finally, this theological perspective emphasizes liberation from oppression for all people not only women and that spirituality is integral to surviving and maintaining integrity in the daily struggles of life. As a religious symbol, Our Lady of Guadalupe is seen not as subservient to God but rather as a metaphor for God, representing God's qualities of a loving, comforting, and maternal presence. Many issues in the spirituality of Hispanic Americans, as such, relate to this core issue.

Latina feminist theology informed the theoretical perspective for this study.

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Some Latino historians and postcolonial scholars point out that Our Lady of Guadalupe represents the Aztec Goddess Tonantzin Coatlalopeuhwho had been worshiped by indigenous people at a temple in Tepeyac prior to European culture. There were ificant relationships between responses to demographic questions about religious practices and the LSPS total scores.

Another influence rican a shared history of colonization. Most of the empirical research in spirituality and religiosity among Latinos has targeted primarily Mexican Americans. Few studies examine the role of spirituality in human health and well-being from the perspectives of Latino people. One of these influences is the collectivist nature of Latino culture, emphasizing mutuality in relationships. Subscale 1 personal relationship with the divine and Subscale 3 empowermentwhich have the strongest links to the Latino theological perspective, had the highest item-total correlations ranging from 0.

For example, religious attendance was associated with psychological well-being across 3 generations of Mexican American families 27 and with physical health status among Mexican American women. Items in factors 1 and 2 in the current study warrant further exploration because they pertain to aspects of relationship with God and other divine beings. Items pertaining Mexico respondents' assumptive view of God as punishing or angry loaded separately on factor 6.

This sample of Latina nurses scored high on the LSPS, suggesting the presence of a strong spiritual perspective in their lives. This means that while there may be some core cultural values shared among Latinos, these values may be subject to variation and diversity that are grounded in class, language, immigration, gender, and dating socially constructed differences. High scores indicate a strong spiritual perspective. All the factors met the recommended standard of at least 2 items per factor, 54 with cross-loadings of less than 2.

Latinos of the Americas embody this shared history of colonization, which has an impact on cultural and spiritual perspectives and values. Culture, socially constructed phenomena such as racialized and gendered identities, class, immigration status, language, and adherence to Catholic Church doctrine or another religious denomination all may contribute to diversity among Latinos' expression of cultural values in general and spiritual perspectives and religious practices in particular.

Religiosity focuses on various behavioral measures such as frequency rican church attendance, of reading religious scripture, of purification through religious actions, and of seeking support from priests or clergy.

Subscale 3, empowermentrefers to how one's spiritual perspective enhances everyday life, including relationships with the family and community. Principal components extraction with Varimax rotation produced 6 factors with eigenvalues of 5. The loading of the items about relationship with God and other religiously symbolic beings on 2 separate factors does, however, Mexico to mirror Catholic beliefs about the specific roles for the Virgin Mary and saints as intermediaries to deliver prayers and petitions to God. Items contained in factors 3—5 did not load according to the hypothesized subscales.

Subscale 2, assumptive view of Godfocuses on conceptualization of God as either loving or punishing. The role of women in the family and local community is a key component. A 6-point Likert-type scale was chosen to increase variability of responses and to decrease equivocation or neutrality in the response. Nevertheless, within the context of religious denominational diversity, Latinos tend to have an active, intimate relationship with their conception of God, and popular religiosity is a prevalent value.

Simply translating items in questionnaires from English to Spanish is not sufficient if the underlying concepts of the questionnaire dating reflective of dominant Anglo European, individualist perspectives.

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This ceiling effect is not surprising, given the importance of spirituality among Latino populations. Implications of this will be discussed further in the next section.

Religiosity relates to the expression of one's spirituality through behaviors and practices grounded in a particular religious denomination. Another major methodological issue in the study of spirituality is grounding research concepts within the culture of the people being studied. Latina theologians critique liberation theology for ignoring the oppression of women by emphasizing transformation of global structures of injustice while neglecting the daily injustice of women in the home as well in the larger society.

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A more thorough assessment of acculturation, however, is needed in future validation testing. Another Latino core cultural value that influences spirituality is familismowhich is characterized by an enduring commitment and loyalty to immediate and extended family members. As no instrument was found that specifically addressed conceptualization of spirituality from Latino perspectives, the first author developed the Latino Spiritual Perspective Scale LSPS to begin exploration of religious practices and spiritual perspective among Latinos both within and outside the United States.

Despite forces of transnational migration that may blur geopolitical boundaries, there are some enduring cultural values among Latinos in which their faith experiences are embedded. Thus, the cultural and spiritual lives of Latinos are reflective of the survival and struggle of a marginalized people that began with European Christian subjugation, and continues today. Discourse within liberation theology reflects an integral understanding that love, justice, and equality are inseparable.

As a religious and political movement, liberation theology gained credence in Latin America and then the United States primarily from the work of the Peruvian priest Gustavo Gutierrez. They included 3 items about feeling close to God, talking daily with God, and depending on God and 3 items about feeling close to, talking daily with, and depending on Jesus, the Virgin Mary, the Virgin of Guadalupe, or saints.

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Estimates for construct validity were obtained through exploratory factor analysis using the principal components method. The lowest item-total correlations ranging from 0. Learn More.

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The alpha for split-half reliability was also acceptable at. Popular religiosity, or the blending of indigenous beliefs and practices with Christianity, is practiced by a majority of Latinos and is reflective of the historical contexts of their countries of origin. The LSPS mean item score was 4. When investigating spiritual perspectives among racial or ethnic minority populations, it is imperative that the values and assumptive world-view of the participant's culture be recognized and incorporated into the theoretical framework and methodology of the research study.

Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Protestant Latinos may relate to the Virgin of Guadalupe only as a cultural symbol, not a religious one. These separate factors may represent different aspects of respondents' personal relationship with their conceptions of divine beings, though it is not clear how these relationships may differ in their everyday faith experiences.

Latino theological literature and empirical studies in healthcare among Latinos emphasize the importance of relationship with God in one's everyday faith experiences. Subscale 4, existentialismfocuses on the meaning of life, suffering, and relationships with the deceased.

A systematic review of the relationship between familism and mental health outcomes in latino population

Latinos are now the largest minority group in the United States, comprising more than 35 million people or More than half of the 28 million foreign-born in the United States are from Latin American countries, mostly from Mexico and Central America. The value of familismo was represented by items about the role of family and community, as well as feeling connected with deceased family members.

support the saliency of cultural values such as personalismo and familismo as the context for spiritual perspectives, which may function independently of the Catholic Church structure. Thus, in this work, Latino culture is conceptualized as fluid and evolving rather than fixed and bounded. On the other hand, spirituality may, but does not necessarily, involve connection with any religious belief, doctrine, or denomination.

Latino theological literature describes spirituality as integral with Latino culture. For example, the proposed subscale personal relationship with the divine contained 6 items. The continuing societal oppression many Latino people experience, particularly those from the lower class, shape spiritual perspectives. Spirituality is a concept that has been receiving increased attention in nursing, psychological, sociological, and healthcare research during the past several decades.

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Researchers conscious of the colonizing legacy of inscribed racial and ethnic categorical labels are challenged when seeking to elucidate and understand perspectives of postcolonial subjectivities. The purpose of this article is to 1 explore Latino cultural values that influence spirituality and 2 describe findings from the first validation study of the LSPS, along with implications for future refinement of the questionnaire.

Grounded in Latina feminist theology, this article elucidates cultural values that influence spirituality and describes findings from a study using a new questionnaire to explore spirituality among Latinas in Puerto Rico and the US mainland. Similarly, local practices of the group being studied should be considered in order for relevant theorizing to occur. To further explore these items, we examined inter-item correlations in factors 1 and 2 Table 2.

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The 4 subscales theorized a priori were not supported by the factor analysis, as items from the subscales did not load together. Items were also developed that reflected a sense of empowerment gained from one's relationship with God. Additional items were developed related to negative conceptualizations of God because empirical studies in the psychology of religious coping have indicated that a negative or punishing conceptualization of God may be associated with poorer mental health outcomes.

Nevertheless, the 3 items pertaining to respondents' relationship with God loaded on factor 1, and the 3 items about relationship with Jesus, Mary, Guadalupe, or saints loaded on factor 2 Table 1.

Spirituality among latinas/os implications of culture in conceptualization and measurement

Exploratory factor analysis is appropriate at beginning stages of instrument development, although confirmatory factor analysis is often utilized when evaluating the fit of hypothesized subscales. Spirituality and religious coping are salient factors in maintaining health and longevity, in well-being during chronic and terminal illnesses, in recovery from traumatic stress, and in positive coping during bereavement.

While language alone is not a sufficient measure of cultural embeddedness, this finding suggests that the LSPS may be relevant for less acculturated Latinas.